时间:2023-12-11 03:36作者:4166am金沙app

本文摘要:In the daunting battle against corporate online espionage worldwide, one major solar company wants to deploy a powerful and novel weapon: higher tariffs.在抗击全球商业网络间谍活动的艰难斗争中,一家大型太阳能企业期望能动用一件强劲的新型武器:更高的进口关税。


In the daunting battle against corporate online espionage worldwide, one major solar company wants to deploy a powerful and novel weapon: higher tariffs.在抗击全球商业网络间谍活动的艰难斗争中,一家大型太阳能企业期望能动用一件强劲的新型武器:更高的进口关税。SolarWorld Americas, the largest manufacturer of solar panels in the United States, has asked the Commerce Department to investigate claims that Chinese military personnel broke into the company’s computers and stole documents important to its business and its long-running trade dispute with China.这家太阳能世界工业(美国)公司(SolarWorld Americas)是美国仅次于的太阳能组件生产企业。

公司已呈交商务部调查自己驳回的指控,即中国军方人员攻进了它的计算机系统,窃取了与公司业务及其同中国之间的长年贸易纠纷有关的关键资料。The company’s request followed the Justice Department’s decision to prosecute five members of the People’s Liberation Army, accusing them in May of stealing online files from a group of American companies, most of which had engaged in trade disputes with China.此前,美国司法部于今年5月要求控告中国人民解放军的五名成员,指控他们窃取一系列美国企业的网络文件,其中多数公司不存在与中国的贸易纠纷。SolarWorld says the new prosecution underscores the sophisticated ways that Chinese companies are retaliating against trade obstacles, especially the use of cyberwarfare.太阳能世界回应,这桩新的诉讼凸显了中国企业背叛贸易屏障时手法之老道,特别是在是还发动了网络战。

As a deterrent, the company is proposing that the administration should use tariffs to crack down on such retribution.为了加以威吓,公司呈交奥巴马政府动用关税手段来抨击这种背叛行径。“We think it is critically important that the Commerce Department set a precedent here and take a strong stand that it will not tolerate cyberhacking of U.S. companies that file trade cases,” said Timothy C. Brightbill, a lawyer representing SolarWorld.“我们指出至关重要的是,商务部要在本案中刷新先例,立场坚定地指出,会忽视针对驳回贸易案的美国企业实行网络间谍活动,”太阳能世界的代理律师蒂莫西·C·布莱特比尔(Timothy C. Brightbill)说道。

While acknowledging that the Justice Department is unlikely to compel the suspects to appear in a United States courtroom, he said the federal government could impose additional steep tariffs on imports of Chinese solar panels. “This is a way that the U.S. could actually make it hurt,” Mr. Brightbill said.尽管否认司法部不大可能被迫嫌疑人经常出现在美国的法庭上,他回应联邦政府需要做对进口的中国太阳能组件加征高额关税。“通过这种方式,美国能让对方确实付出代价,”布莱特比尔说道。A broader investigation by the Commerce Department into the costs of solar panels divided the industry from its start. Domestic solar farm developers and installers of solar systems, whose businesses had benefited from an abundance of cheap imported equipment, worried that the passed-on costs of tariffs would slow solar adoption among consumers.从一开始,美国商务部针对太阳能组件成本启动的大型调查竟然这一行业陷于分化。

美国的太阳能电厂开发商和太阳能系统加装企业归功于廉价进口设备的充裕供应。二者担忧,关税带给的成本分摊不会减慢消费者用于太阳能的步伐。And American companies exporting polysilicon, the main raw material for solar products, to China feared that tariffs would make it harder for them to do business there. Indeed, China imposed steep duties on American polysilicon at the beginning of this year and recently tightened import policies on the material.此外,对中国出口多晶硅的美国公司也担忧,加征关税不会让它们在中国的做生意更加难做。


Still, many executives and officials have been frustrated in trying to hold Chinese companies accountable for what they see as unfair or unscrupulous business practices. A federal judge recently found a state-controlled Chinese drywall manufacturer, Taishan Gypsum Company, in criminal and civil contempt after it abruptly abandoned court proceedings five years into a case that found it liable for contaminated drywall used in the homes of seven Virginia families.尽管如此,美国政商两界的许多高级官员仍然在为如何让中国企业承担责任而极为困惑。在他们显然,中国企业使用的是不公平或不道德的商业手法。一名联邦法官近期裁决,中国的国有腊板墙生产商泰山石膏股份有限公司犯下刑事与民事类的诬蔑法庭罪,理由是公司忽然暂停参予一桩展开了五年的诉讼案的法律程序。案件确认,这家企业要为弗吉尼亚州七户人家用于的剧毒腊板墙负责管理。

Senator Bill Nelson, Democrat of Florida, said he believed the implications of the case went far beyond drywall.来自佛罗里达州的民主党联邦参议员比尔·尼尔森(Bill Nelson)回应,他指出本案的意义相比之下远超过了干板墙的范畴。“It poses a defining moment for the Chinese government and its companies, which raises grave questions as to the risk of doing business with the Chinese,” Senator Nelson said in July on the Senate floor. “Will the Chinese government and its companies honor their moral and legal obligations under this or any other commercial contract?”“这是考验中国政府和中国企业本质的时刻,就与中国经商的风险明确提出了根本性疑惑,”尼尔森今年7月在参议院讲话称之为。“不管是在这项商务合约,或是其他合约中,中国政府和公司不会会信守道德和法律义务?”In the case of online crime, corporations across many industries are frequently reluctant to cooperate with prosecutions, said Shawn Henry, president of CrowdStrike Services, a security technology and services company, and a former executive assistant director of the F.B.I. They worry that publicizing security breaches risks their reputation and erodes competitive advantages, as well as opening the door to lawsuits.安全性技术与服务公司CrowdStrike的总裁肖恩·亨利(Shawn Henry)称之为,在网络犯罪案件中,有众多行业的公司经常不愿与检方合作。


亨利曾在联邦调查局(FBI)兼任常务助理局长。企业担忧,公开发表安全性缺口有可能有损自身名誉、巩固竞争优势,并不会关上诉讼的大门。The threat of trade sanctions, Mr. Henry said, could offer the government a rare way to thwart hacking schemes before they happen.亨利指出,威胁动用贸易制裁可以让美国政府享有一样提早制止网络攻击活动的少见武器。

“The value to the Chinese government and the companies that are benefiting from these thefts of intellectual property is in the billions of dollars, and the penalties or the risk is almost zero,” he said. “There aren’t any mechanisms to hold anyone accountable.”“中国政府和企业从这些知识产权偷窃活动中赚的钱财数以亿计,而受到的惩罚和其中的风险完全为零,”他说道。“目前几乎不不存在能将任何人绳之以法的机制。”It is not clear how or if the Commerce Department will proceed; officials there declined to comment beyond saying that they were reviewing the request. Also uncertain is whether the White House, which is struggling to balance promoting the spread of green energy and protecting domestic manufacturing, would support the use of tariffs in such cases. A Justice Department spokesman, Marc Raimondi, said that the administration “embraces an all-tools approach to these types of crimes.”尚能不明朗的是,商务部否将前进此事,以及如何前进。



司法部发言人马克·雷蒙迪(Marc Raimondi)称之为,政府“青睐在应付这类犯罪时多管齐下”。“It’s not just a criminal justice solution,” Mr. Raimondi said. “There are a number of different tools that can be used to target this type of criminal activity.”“不光可以动用刑事司法解决问题手段,”雷蒙迪说道。“还有多种不同的工具可以用作压制此类犯罪活动。”Trade officials would first have to open an inquiry into how SolarWorld had been harmed and how the Chinese-owned solar companies — unnamed in the Justice Department indictment — had benefited, in order to impose additional duties on imports from those companies. If the Chinese government or companies decline to respond to information requests, the department can use other facts, including those presented by the other side in making a determination, trade lawyers said.贸易官员必需首先启动调查,针对的是太阳能世界不受侵犯的情况,以及中国太阳能企业——司法部的诉状中并未发布明确名称——借此获益的情况,然后才能对来自这些企业的进口商品加征关税。

贸易律师回应,倘若中国政府或公司拒绝接受获取涉及信息,商务部可以在做出判决时说法其他事实,比如提出申请的一方递交的证据。Even if the Commerce Department does not open an investigation, trade experts say, the SolarWorld request and the Justice Department indictment are bringing needed attention to a government that is more aggressive than others have been in trying to promote its industries.贸易专家回应,就算商务部要求不启动调查,太阳能世界明确提出的拒绝和司法部的月控告,也将适当的注目探讨到了中国政府身上。

在希望提高本国产业上,中国政府的咄咄逼人姿态相比别国来堪称最为引人注目。“The Chinese have taken their efforts on behalf of their economy — and a lot of them are state-owned enterprises, a lot of them are state-supported — to a level that I think most people within the trade area haven’t seen,” said Paul C. Rosenthal, a lawyer at Kelley Drye in Washington. “It needs to be addressed, and there need to be better remedies available to address it.”“中国以经济名为展开了种种尝试,很多受益者是国有或受到国家反对的企业。这种活动的程度之浅,我想要是贸易领域的多数人前所未见的,”在华盛顿执业的凯利律师事务所(Kelley Drye)律师保罗·C·罗森塔尔(Paul C. Rosenthal)说道。“这个问题必须获得认清,必须有更佳的补救措施来加以应付。